CS193p Notes — Lecture 2: MVVM and the Swift Type System

Model View ViewModel (MVVM)

  • A code organizing architectural design paradigm.
  • Imperative model calls functions between messing the UI in a way that it’s hard to say what the code is going to exactly look like.
  • MVVM allows things like changing the UI right away when doing modifications because it’s stateless. This is called reactive.
  • ViewModel is doing some stuff behind the scenes to use Model and not make View too complex.
  • Views are kind of like people inside a house, ViewModel is the door, and models are outside the house. This way View must go through ViewModel to access Models.


  • struct

class Struct and call are very similar, Stored vars (variables stored in memory), Computer vars (var body: some View { return Text("hello world")), Constant lets, functions — function parameters can have two labels where the first is used outside the function (callers) and the second is used inside the function. _ is same as no label, initializers — When created this can initialize some parameters.

Differences between struct and class

  • Struct is value type and class is reference type
  • Struct is kind of for functional programming while classes are more for OOP
  • Struct don’t have inheritance
  • Struct has init that initialize all vars and that is why own initializer is done less often
  • Struct used mostly
  • protocol
  • “Don’t care” type (aka generics)
  • Every variable has type
  • In some case we don’t want to specify the type
  • For example we want array to contain all kinds of variables
  • Element is used when you don't want to use specific type
  • It’s like placeholder and when later for example the array is used, it gets some value.
  • called Type Parameter
  • enum
  • Functions
  • Functions as types
  • (Int, Int) -> Bool takes two Ints and returns a Bool
  • (Double) -> Void takes a Double and returns nothing
  • () -> Array<String> takes no arguments and returns an Array and Sting s
var operation: (Double) -> Doublefunc square(operand: Double) -> Double {
return operand * operand
operation = square
let result1 = operation(4)
operation = sqrt // built-in function which takes and returns a double
let result2 = operation(4)
  • Closure
  • In-lining a function
  • more later…
  • File > New > File
  • Many options but we use mostly
  • SwiftUI View— UI file
  • Swift File — Non UI file
  • Save the file under yellow things not blue


import Foundationstruct MemoryGame<CardContent> {
var cards: Array<Card>
func choose(card: Card) {
print("card chosen: \\(card)")
init(numberOfPairsOfCards: Int, cardContentFactory: (Int) -> CardContent) {
cards = Array<Card>()
for pairIndex in 0..<numberOfPairsOfCards {
let content = cardContentFactory(pairIndex)
cards.append(Card(isFaceUp: false, isMatched: false, content: content))
cards.append(Card(isFaceUp: false, isMatched: false, content: content))
struct Card {
var isFaceUp: Bool
var isMatched: Bool
var contect: CardContent // placeholder type


import SwiftUIclass EmojiMemoryGame {
private(set) var model: MemoryGame<String> =
MemoryGame<String>(numberOfPairsOfCards: 2, cardContentFactory: { pairIndex in "smile" })
// ☝️ Only EmojiMemoryGame can modify the model but everyone can see it
// MARK: - Access to the Model var cards: Array<MemoryGame<String>.Card> {
// MARK: - Intent(s) func choose(card: MemoryGame<String>.Card) {
model.choose(card: card)
  • This is class because multiple View can then use this same thing
  • MARK: - adds the comment to header in Xcode where it's easy to see them
  • The thing that comes after cardContentFactory is closure


(Done previously)

  • Static makes the function part of type not instance and that way it can be used in initialization
  • Hold option key down and click any word to see documentation
  • ForEach needs to be either iterable of ints or the items needs to be available to identify, Identifying happens by adding struct Name: Identifiable, Then it also requires a parameter id which can be any type


Lecture 1
Lecture 2
Lecture 3
Lecture 4
Lecture 5
Lecture 6
Lecture 7
Lecture 8
Lecture 9
Lecture 10
Lecture 11
Lecture 12
Lecture 13
Lecture 14

Originally published: https://www.notion.so/lankinen/Lecture-2-MVVM-and-the-Swift-Type-System-943028ef69b847a0b6a9518bc538ae46